Washington Post: U.S. politicians get China in Africa all wrong

五月 10th, 2019

The WorldPost Opinion


Quote from:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/04/12/china-africa/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.646e98852cb9

Loans from China helped Uganda build a speedy new road to its main airport. But critics say the country is now too deep in debt to Beijing. (Reuters)

By Deborah BräutigamApril 12, 2018

Deborah Bräutigam is the Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy and director of the China Africa Research Initiative at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. Her latest book is Will Africa Feed China?

In Washington, Republicans and Democrats generally look at China as a new imperial power in Africa: bad news for Africans. But is this really the case?

Just before his visit to Africa last month, former secretary of state Rex Tillerson accused China of using “predatory loan practices,” undermining growth and creating “few if any jobs” on the continent. In Ethiopia, Tillerson charged the Chinese with providing “opaque” project loans that boost debt without providing significant training. As secretary of state, Hillary Clinton sang the same tune, warning Africans to beware of this “new colonialism.” China, we are often told, is bringing in all its own workers or “grabbing” African land to grow food to send back to feed China.

But researchers who have explored China’s role in Africa suggest that many of the things our politicians believe about Chinese engagement are not actually true.

1. Jobs and training

Take jobs and training. Lina Benabdallah, a political science professor at Wake Forest University, studies Chinese investments in African human resource development programs. “Africans are being invited to Chinese universities. China is offering scholarships,” she said. “When Africans are thinking about technology [and] skills, they are thinking of China as a valid option.”

Surveys of employment on Chinese projects in Africa repeatedly find that three-quarters or more of the workers are, in fact, local. This makes business sense. In China, textile workers now earn about $500 a month — far more than workers in most African countries. Chinese investors flocking to set up factories in low-cost countries like Ethiopia are not thinking about importing Chinese workers. Like U.S. and European factory owners who moved their factories to China in past decades, Chinese firms are now outsourcing their own manufacturing to cheaper countries.

2. Predatory lending

Are the Chinese engaging in predatory lending? Here, researchers can also shine light on a murky subject. Scholars at Boston University and Johns Hopkins University have been painstakingly assembling databases of Chinese loans provided since 2000.

In Africa, we found that China had lent at least $95.5 billion between 2000 and 2015. That’s a lot of debt. Yet by and large, the Chinese loans in our database were performing a useful service: financing Africa’s serious infrastructure gap. On a continent where over 600 million Africans have no access to electricity, 40 percent of the Chinese loans paid for power generation and transmission. Another 30 percent went to modernizing Africa’s crumbling transport infrastructure.

Some of these were no doubt pork barrel projects and white elephants: airports with few passengers, or bridges to nowhere. African presidents, like others, love to cut ribbons and leave legacies of big buildings. Chinese companies will receive nearly all of the contracts to build this Chinese-financed infrastructure. Questions have been raised about its quality. Yet on the whole, power and transport are investments that boost economic growth. And we found that Chinese loans generally have comparatively low interest rates and long repayment periods.

3. Land grabs

“Land grabs” — a term used for any purchase, rental or theft of relatively large amounts of land — are controversial around the world, but especially in Africa, where colonial powers like Britain and France grabbed nearly the entire continent. The stories that China was now a “land grabber” in Africa seemed to make sense. After all, China has 9 percent of the world’s arable land, 6 percent of its water and over 20 percent of its people. Africa has plentiful land and the planet’s largest expanses of underutilized land and water. And Chinese companies were clearly interested in investing in Africa; some came to inquire about land.

And so the land grab rumors began to spread. On the CBS News website, we read: “China recently purchased half the farmland under cultivation in the Congo.” German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s top African adviser toldreporters that a devastating famine in the Horn of Africa several years ago was partly due to China’s “large-scale land purchases.” Even Swedish crime writer Henning Mankell recirculated a “land grab” story: “I read just the other day that China has rented land in Kenya to move some one million peasants to Africa.”

Intrigued by these stories, I did what academics do. Instead of tweeting what might have been fake news, I set up a research project.

Our team at the International Food Policy Research Institute and at Johns Hopkins University collected a database of 57 cases where Chinese firms (or the government) were alleged to have acquired or negotiated large (over 500 hectare) amounts of African farmland. If all of these media reports had been real news, this would have amounted to a very alarming 6 million hectares — 1 percent of all the farmland in Africa.

We spent three years tracking down every single case. We travelled from Madagascar to Mozambique, Zimbabwe to Zambia. We confirmed that nearly a third of these stories, including the three above, were literally false. In the remaining cases, we found real Chinese investments. But the total amount of land actually acquired by Chinese firms was only about 240,000 hectares: 4 percent of the reported amount.

The stories of large-scale land grabbing and Chinese peasants being shipped to Africa to grow food for China turned out to be mostly myths. As researchers at the Center for International Forestry Research concludedafter their own rigorous research: “China is not a dominant investor in plantation agriculture in Africa, in contrast to how it is often portrayed.”

We found a story of globalization, not colonization; a story of African agency, rather than Chinese rapacity. In Mozambique, I met African investors like Zaidi Aly, who had traveled to Brazil to learn how to grow soybeans for local chicken feed. There, he met a Chinese firm buying soybeans. Aly invited them to invest in soybeans with him. Hit by a prolonged drought, their joint venture failed. The Chinese returned home. But Aly told me it was a net gain: “I learned so much from them.”

To be sure, increased Chinese engagement comes with significant and very real challenges for many Africans. Traders complain about competition from Chinese migrants. In our research on Chinese factories in Africa, we’ve interviewed African workers who now have jobs but complain about Chinese bosses who expect long hours at low pay.

Chinese demand for African ivory, abalone, rhinoceros tusk and materials from other endangered species has taken a significant toll on conservation efforts. And Chinese President Xi Jinping’s recent lifting of his own term limits is bound to embolden African leaders who are reluctant to leave their comfortable presidential posts.

China is often lambasted as a nefarious actor in its African dealings, but the evidence tells a more complicated story. Chinese loans are powering Africa, and Chinese firms are creating jobs. China’s agricultural investment is far more modest than reported and welcomed by some Africans. China may boost Africa’s economic transformation, or they may get it wrong — just as American development efforts often go awry.

This was produced by The WorldPost, a partnership of the Berggruen Institute and The Washington Post.

又见湄公河

八月 22nd, 2012

金边七日。带上泳衣,厚书,和陈年的打印读物。去湄公河边发呆。从秋天,回到夏天。Visiting South East Asia, even for work, feels always like on vacation…

带了买了良久却从未看过的《爱与其他不可能的追求》,飞机上竟有波特曼主演的同名电影。从阅读开始,以电影结束,多有趣的巧合。

意外重访了河畔的 FCC,谈完正事,在天台上看了一下午的蜻蜓和河景。为了宽慰独自出差的静寥心情,消灭一大块牛排。这回墙上的超级大壁虎没有现身。

白天和晚上游了不少泳,在可爱的浅水游泳池。看见蓝天白云,炎炎烈日,和瓢泼大雨。

金边的柬埔寨国立博物馆建筑和院子都很美,一群群各色的鱼在长满植物的几个池子里游来游去。只可惜展品惊喜有限,大概是暹粒的博物馆太令人印象深刻了。

辗转回到北京,好不容易等到了秋天。这个夏天 — 太长了。

很不错的酒店 The Pavilion (227, Street 19, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh, Cambodia) ,位置和服务都好,独特美丽的老房子,很迷人。50-80美金一晚。

整个九月

十月 7th, 2011

久违的四脚朝天般的忙碌。兄长大人终于是婚了,二老莅临指导工作,任务们堆成了一座小山。前后穿插着两个星期的长差,有幸一睹袋鼠芳容 — 卡瓦伊卡瓦伊,可是树袋熊宝宝们却躲着不肯相见,遗憾遗憾。

托飞行的”福”加上机缘巧合,电影看了一箩筐:

1. Maria, ihm schmeckt’s nicht – 意大利人无可救药的搞笑气质碰上古板的德国条条框框,how could it be not funny?
2. Midnight in Paris – Another great Woody Allen movie. Enjoy it as always. Probably every age is golden age.
3. 海洋:比起自然的壮美和永恒,人类也许只是昙花一现,希望我们能和这个美丽的星球和其他生物友好的共同相处。
4. 挪威的森林:悲伤的调调在迷乱的青春里浮动。虽然结局终究黯淡。
5. 阿飞正传:终于看了著名老片,喜欢片子的色调。张国荣表演出色,刘嘉玲则似乎一成不变。
6. The Accidental Husband – Just another love story. Interestingly Mr. Darcy finally lost a girl in the movie.
7. 不再让你孤单 – Just another love story.

和大牛先生说了再见,希望是真的能够再见。老先生一如既往的支了很多歪招。

订了一堆译文出版社的老派小说,该有点时间读点书了吧?